An excellent research study from Dr. Shoemaker’s Clinic showing how biotoxin illness causes structural brain changes including swelling of the frontal lobes, hippocampus and cerebellum as well as shrinking of the caudate.  Dysfunction in these regions of the brain can contribute to executive cognitve dysfunction – that is impairment of recent memory, concentration, wordfinding difficulties, assimilation of new knowledge and even confusion and disorientation in familiar places.  Shrinkage of the caudate may lead to movement problems, such as tremors.  In addition disruption of all these regions of the brain can contribute to anxiety, anger and depression, which are common symptoms in biotoxin illness.